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Published References that include the SATS




Please Note: This page contains a list of published SATS articles from peer reviewed journals. However, some of these articles contain errors and incorrect conclusions, including incorrectly scoring the SATS and using inappropriate methods of analyzing pre and post data.




Ashaari, N.S., Judi, H.M., Mohamed, H. & Wook, T.M.T (2011). Student’s Attitude towards Statistics Course. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 18, 287–294. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042811011542.


Bechrakisa, T., Gialamasb, V. & Barkatsas, A. N. (2011). Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics (SATS): An investigation of its construct validity and its factor structure invariance by gender. International Journal of Theoretical Educational Practice, 1(1), 1–15.

Bond, M. E., Perkins, S. & Ramirez, C. (2012). Students’ perceptions of statistics: An exploration of attitudes, conceptualizations, and content knowledge of statistics. Statistics Education Research Journal, 11(2), 6-25. Retrieved from



Carlson, K. A. & Winquist, J. R. (2011).  Evaluating an active learning approach to teaching introductory statistics: A classroom workbook approach.  Journal of Statistics Education, 19(1). Retrieved from


Carnell, L. J.  (2008).  The effect of a student-designed data collection project on attitudes toward statistics. Journal of Statistics Education, 16(1). Retrieved from


Cashin, S. E. & Elmore, P. B. (2005).  The Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics scale:  A construct validity study.  Educational and Psychological Measurement, 65, 509-524.


Chance, B., Wong, J. & Tintle, N. (2016). Student Performance in Curricula Centered on Simulation-Based Inference: A Preliminary Report. Journal of Statistics Education, 24(3), 114-126. Retrieved from http://tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10691898.2016.1223529?needAccess=true.



Chew, P. K. H. & Dillon, D. B. (2014). Statistics Anxiety Update: Refining the Construct and Recommendations for a New Research Agenda. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 9(2), 196-208.


Chiesi, F. & Primi, C. (2009). Assessing statistics attitudes among college students: Psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Survey of Attitudes toward Statistics (SATS). Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 309-313.

Chiesi, F. & Primi, C. (2010). Cognitive and non-cognitive factors related to students' statistics achievement. Statistics Education Research Journal, 9(1), 6-26. Retrieved from http://iase-web.org/documents/SERJ/SERJ9(1)_Chiesi_Primi.pdf.


Coetzee, S. & Van der Merwe, P. (2010). Industrial psychology students' attitudes towards statistics. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 36, 1-8. Retrieved from www.sajip.co.za.



Combs, J.P. & Onwuegbuzie, A.J. (2012). Relationships among Attitudes, Coping

Strategies, and Achievement in Doctoral-Level Statistics Courses: A Mixed Research Study. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 7, 349-375. Retrieved from




Dauphinee, T. L., Schau, C. & Stevens, J. J. (1997). Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics: Factor structure and factorial invariance for females and males. Structural Equation Modeling, 4, 129-141. 

Dempster, M. & McCorry, N. K. (2009). The role of previous experience and attitudes toward statistics in statistics assessment outcomes among undergraduate psychology students. Journal of Statistics Education, 17(2). Retrieved from www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v17n2/dempster.html.


DeVaney, T. A. (2010). Anxiety and attitude of graduate students in on-campus vs. online statistics courses.  Journal of Statistics Education, 18(1). Retrieved from www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v18n1/devaney.pdf


Emmioğlu , E. & Capa-Aydin, Y. (2012).
Attitudes and achievement in statistics: A meta-analysis study. Statistics Education Research Journal, 11(2), 95-102. Retrieved from http://iase-web.org/documents/SERJ/SERJ11(2)_Emmioglu.pdf.


Finney, S. J. & Schraw, G. (2003). Self-efficacy beliefs in college statistics courses. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 28, 161-186.


Gundlach, E., Richards, K.A.R., Nelson, D. & Levesque-Bristol, C. (2015). A Comparison of Student Attitudes, Statistical Reasoning, Performance, and Perceptions for Web-augmented Traditional, Fully Online, and Flipped Sections of a Statistical Literacy Class.

Journal of Statistics Education, 23(1). Retrieved from http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v23n1/gundlach.pdf.


Hannigan, A., Gill, O. & Leavy, A.M. (2013). An investigation of prospective secondary mathematics teachers’ conceptual knowledge of and attitudes towards statistics. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 16 (6), 427–449.



Hannigan, A., Hegarty, A.C. & McGrath, D. (2014). Attitudes towards statistics of graduate entry medical students: the role of prior learning experiences. BMC Medical Education, 14. Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6920/14/70.



Hilton, S. C., Schau, C. & Olsen, J. A.  (2004).  Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics:  Factor structure invariance by gender and by administration time.  Structural Equation Modeling, 11, 92-109.


Hood, M, Creed. P. A. & Neumann, D. L. (2012). Using the expectancy value model of motivation to understand the relationship between student attitudes and achievement in statistics. Statistics Education Research Journal, 11(2), 72-85. Retrieved from www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/serj.


Judi, H.M., Ashaari, N.S., Mohamed, H. & Wook, T.M.T (2011). Students Profile Based on Attitude towards Statistics. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 18, 266–272. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042811011517.



Khavensona, T., Orelb, E. & Tryakshinac, M. (2012). Adaptation of Survey of Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS 36) for Russian Sample. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 2126–2129. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042812015698.



Krishnan, S. & Idris, N. (2015). Investigating SATS-36 for a Matriculation Sample.

International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education 4(2). 84-88. Retrieved from http://www.iaesjournal.com/online/index.php/IJERE/article/download/7931/pdf



Lesser, L. M., Pearl, D. K. & Weber III, J. J. (2016). Assessing Fun Items’ Effectiveness in Increasing Learning of College Introductory Statistics Students: Results of a Randomized Experiment. Journal of Statistics Education, 24(2), 54-62. Retrieved from http://tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10691898.2016.1190190.



Liau, A.K., Kiat, J.E. & Nie, Y. (2015). Investigating the Pedagogical Approaches Related to Changes in Attitudes Toward Statistics in a Quantitative Methods Course for Psychology Undergraduate Students. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 24(2), 319–327.



Mahmud, Z. & Zainol, M. S. (2008). Examining postgraduate students’ perceived competency in statistical data analysis and their attitudes toward statistics. International Journal of Education and Information Technologies, 1(2), 79–86.


Marquez, J.C. (2004).
Una Revisisn de las Evidencias de Fiabilidad y Vadlidez de los Cuestionarios de Actitudes y Ansiedad Hacia la Estadmstica. Statistics Education Research Journal, 3(1), 5-28. Retrieved from




Mathew, L. & Aktan, N.M. (2014). Nursing student attitudes toward statistics. Journal of Nursing Education, 53(4). 233-237.



Milic, N. M, Masic, S., Milin-Lazovic J., Trajkovic, G., Bukumiric, Z., Savic, M., et al. (2016). The Importance of Medical Students' Attitudes Regarding Cognitive Competence for Teaching Applied Statistics: Multi-Site Study and Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE 11(10): e0164439. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0164439.



Millar, A. M. & Schau, C. (2011).  Letter to the editor.  Statistics Education Research Journal, 10(2), 77-7Retrieved from



Mills, J. A.  (2004).  Students’ attitudes toward Statistics:  Implications for the future.  College Student Journal, 38, 349-361.


Nasser, F. M.  (2004).  Structural model of the effects of cognitive and affective factors on the achievement of Arabic-speaking pre-service teachers in introductory statistics.  Journal of Statistics Education, 12(1), 1-24.  Retrieved from www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v12n1/nasser.html.


Nolan, M. M., Beran, T. & Hecker, K. G. (2012). Surveys assessing students’ attitudes toward statistics: A systematic review of validity and reliability. Statistics Education Research Journal, 11(2), 103-123. Retrieved from http://iase-web.org/documents/SERJ/SERJ11(2)_Nolan.pdf.


Posner, M. A. (2011).  The impact of a proficiency-based assessment and reassessment of learning outcomes system on student achievement and attitudes.  Statistics Education Research Journal, 10(1), 3-14Retrieved from http://iase-web.org/documents/SERJ/SERJ10(1)_Posner.pdf.

Ramirez, C., Schau, C. & Emmioğlu, E. (2012).  The importance of attitudes in statistics education. Statistics Education Research Journal, 11(2), 57-71. Retrieved from http://iase-web.org/documents/SERJ/SERJ11(2)_Ramirez.pdf.



Ratanaolarn, T. (2016). The Development of a Structural Equation Model of

Graduate Students’ Statistics Achievement. International Journal of Behavioral Science, 11(2), 153-168.


Ruggeri, K., Dempster, M., Hanna, D. & Cleary, C. (2008). Experiences and expectations: The real reason nobody likes stats. Psychology Teaching Review, 14(2), 75-83.

Ruggeri, K., Diaz, C., Kelly, K., Papousek, I., Dempster, M, & Hanna, D. (2008). International issues in education. Psychology Teaching Review, 14(2), 65-74.

Schau, C. (2000). Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics. In J. Maltby, C. A. Lewis, & A. Hill (Eds.), Commissioned Reviews on 250 Psychological Tests (pp. 898-901). Lampeter, Wales: Edwin Mellen Press. 


Schau, C. & Emmioğlu , E. (2012). Do introductory statistics courses in the United States improve students’ attitudes? Statistics Education Research Journal, 11(2), 86-94. Retrieved from http://iase-web.org/documents/SERJ/SERJ11(2)_Schau.pdf.


Schau, C., Millar, M. & Petocz, P. (2012).  Special issue: Research on attitudes towards statistics: Editorial. Statistics Education Research Journal, 11(2), 2-5. Retrieved from http://iase-web.org/documents/SERJ/SERJ11(2)_Editorial.pdf.


Schau, C., Stevens, J., Dauphinee, T. L. & Del Vecchio, A. (1995). The development and validation of the Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55, 868-875.

Schutz, P.A., Drogosz, L. M., White, V. E. & Distefano, C.  (1998).  Prior knowledge, attitude, and strategy use in an introduction to statistics course.  Learning and Individual Differences, 10, 291-308.


Slootmaeckers, K., Kerremans, B. & Adriaensen, J. (2014). Too Afraid to Learn: Attitudes towards Statistics as a Barrier to Learning Statistics and to Acquiring Quantitative Skills. Politics, 34(2), 191–200.



Stanisavljevic, D., Trajkovic, G., Marinkovic, J., Bukumiric, Z., Cirkovic, A. & Milic, N. (2014). Assessing Attitudes towards Statistics among Medical Students: Psychometric Properties of the Serbian Version of the Survey of Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS). PLoS ONE, 9(11). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4236124/pdf/pone.0112567.pdf.


Tempelaar, D. T., Gijselaers, W. J. & Schim van der Loeff, S.  (2006).  Puzzles in statistical reasoning.  Journal of Statistics Education, 14 (1), 1-26.  Retrieved from

Tempelaar, D. T., Gijselaers, W. J., Schim van der Loeff, S. & Nijhuis, J. F. H.  (2007).  A structural equation model analyzing the relationship of student achievement motivations and personality factors in a range of academic subject-matter areas.  Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32(1), 105-131.


Tempelaar, D. T. & Nijhuis. J. F. H.  (2007).  Commonalities in attitudes and beliefs toward different academic subjects.  In M. K. McCuddy, H. van den Bosch, J. W. B. Martz, A. V. Matveev, & K. O. Morse (Eds.), Educational Innovation in Economics and Business X:  The Challenges of Educating People to Lead in a Challenging World (pp. 225-250).  Berlin:  Springer.

Tempelaar, D. T., Schim van der Loeff, S. & Gijselaers, W. H. (2007). A structural equation model analyzing the relationship of students' attitudes toward statistics, prior reasoning abilities, and course performance. Statistics Education Research Journal, 6(2), 78-102. Retrieved from http://iase-web.org/documents/SERJ/SERJ6(2)_Tempelaar.pdf


VanHoof, S., Kuppens, S., Castro Sotos, A. E., Verschaffel, L. & Onghena, P. (2011). Measuring statistics attitudes:  Structure of the Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics (SATS-36).  Statistics Education Research Journal, 10(1), 35-51Retrieved from http://iase-web.org/documents/SERJ/SERJ10(1)_Vanhoof.pdf.



Wiberg, M. (2009). Teaching statistics in integration with psychology. Journal of Statistics Education, 17(1). Retrieved from  www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v17n1/wiberg.html.


Zhang, Y., Shang, L., Wang, R., Zhao, Q., Li, C., Xu, Y. & Su, H. (2012). Attitudes toward statistics in medical postgraduates: measuring, evaluating and monitoring. BMC Medical Education, 12. Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1472-6920-12-117.pdf.


Zimprich, D. (2012). Attitudes toward statistics among Swiss psychology students. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 71(3), 149–155. 





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